Porous chitosan/ZnO-doped bioglass composites as carriers of
bioactive peptides

In this study, we aimed to assess whether the composite of chitosan/ZnO-doped bioglass can be applied as a suitable scaffold for the incorporation of bioactive peptides. Material of a porous composite with 1:1 ratio of bioglass:polymer was produced and used as a matrix for delivery of peptide. A peptide with the PEPTIDES sequence (Pro-Glu-Pro-Thr-Ile-Asp-Glu-Ser) was chosen as a model peptide. Microstructure and pore sizes of chitosan/ZnO-doped bioglass were assessed. Open porosity and pore sizes of the composite were suitable for enabling the migration of cells and ensuring the easy delivery of nutrients within the implant. In addition, composite showed bioactivity and bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. Peptide alone did not have any cytotoxic activity on human fibroblasts and keratinocytes. Also it did not show any antibacterial properties and did not cause hemolysis of red blood cells. The peptide incorporated in composite showed a rapid release in the kinetics profile. The obtained results indicate that there is the technological possibility to incorporate peptides in chitosan/ ZnO-doped bioglass scaffolds. Such biomaterials have potential application in bone tissue engineering.

Proteins, peptides and peptidomimetics as active agents in implant
surface functionalization

The recent impact of implants on improving the human life quality has been enormous. During the past two decades we witnessed major advancements in both material and structural development of implants. They were driven mainly by the increasing patients’ demand and the need to address the major issues that come along with the initially underestimated complexity of the bone-implant interface.While both, the materials and design of implants reached a certain, balanced state, recent years brought a shift in focus towards the bone-implant interface as theweakest link in the increasing implant long-term usability. As a result, several approacheswere developed. They aimed at influencing and enhancing the implant osseointegration and its proper behavior when under load and stress.With this review,we would like to discuss the recent advancements in the field of implant surface modifications, emphasizing the importance of chemical methods, focusing on proteins, peptides and peptidomimetics as promising agents for titanium surface coatings.

Spectroscopic Methods Used in Implant Material Studies

It is recognized that interactions between most materials are governed by their surface properties and manifest themselves at the interface formed between them. To gain more insight into this thin layer, several methods have been deployed. Among them, spectroscopic methods have been thoroughly evaluated. Due to their exceptional sensitivity, data acquisition speed, and broad material tolerance they have been proven to be invaluable tools for surface analysis, used by scientists in many fields, for example, implant studies. Today, in modern medicine the use of implants is considered standard practice. The past two decades of constant development has established the importance of implants in dentistry, orthopedics, as well as extended their applications to other areas such as aesthetic medicine. Fundamental to the success of implants is the knowledge of the biological processes involved in interactions between an implant and its host tissue, which are directly connected to the type of implant material and its surface properties. This review aims to demonstrate the broad applications of spectroscopic methods in implant material studies, particularly discussing hard implants, surface composition studies, and surface–cell interactions.