Spectroscopic Methods Used in Implant Material Studies
It is recognized that interactions between most materials are governed by their surface properties and manifest themselves at the interface formed between them. To gain more insight into this thin layer, several methods have been deployed. Among them, spectroscopic methods have been thoroughly evaluated. Due to their exceptional sensitivity, data acquisition speed, and broad material tolerance they have been proven to be invaluable tools for surface analysis, used by scientists in many fields, for example, implant studies. Today, in modern medicine the use of implants is considered standard practice. The past two decades of constant development has established the importance of implants in dentistry, orthopedics, as well as extended their applications to other areas such as aesthetic medicine. Fundamental to the success of implants is the knowledge of the biological processes involved in interactions between an implant and its host tissue, which are directly connected to the type of implant material and its surface properties. This review aims to demonstrate the broad applications of spectroscopic methods in implant material studies, particularly discussing hard implants, surface composition studies, and surface–cell interactions.